Galerina heterocystis

Galerina heterocystis (G.F. Atk.) A.H. Smith & Singer, Sydowia 11: 447. 1957. [pdf]*

MycoBank MB297627

AUTHOR: Ballester L., Marques G. & Olariaga I.


Galerula heterocystis G.F. Atk., Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 57: 362. 1918. [pdf]

= Galera fragilis var. clavata Velen., České Houby: 548. 1921. [pdf].
= Galerina clavata (Velen.) Kühner, Encycl. Mycol. 7: 171. 1935.
= Galera clavata (Velen.) J.E. Lange, Fl. Agaric. Danic. 4: 40. 1939 [pdf]

?= Galerula hypnorum var. macrospora Maire, Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 44: 49. 1928. [pdf]**

*The name is based on material from Jamaica, the type of which was revised by Smith & Singer (A monograph of the genus Galerina Earle. 1964: 35) and matches morphologically with the European material. According to our analyses of the ITS region (see Fig. 1), the clade containing the only Iberian sequence also includes sequences from Europe, Svalbard, North America, and Mexico, suggesting that the species present in the Iberian Peninsula is also present in Jamaica. Until there are morphological and molecular indications that the taxon treated here is a species complex, we adopt the oldest known name for this species, G. heterocystis.

**Synonymy based in Kühner (Encycl. Mycol. 7: 171. 1935), who claims to have seen material of the species treated here in Mauritania and also states that Maire collected this species in the same territory. The original description mentions capitate cystidia and spore size consistent with this species, excluding most species that might resemble it.


Taxonomic Classification

phy Basidiomycota

sbp Agaricomycotina

cls Agaricomycetes

sbc Agaricomycetidae

ord Agaricales

fam Strophariaceae

gen Galerina

sp Galerina heterocystis


Pileus 10-20 mm in diameter, flat, with a obtuse umbo, yellow-cream to yellowish-light brown. Smooth, hygrophanous cuticle, striate by transparency. Thin, crenulate margin. Adnate, ventricose, spaced gills, interspersed with lamellulae, first cream-colored, then light brown. Ocher spore print. Stipe 30-50 × 2-3 mm, cylindrical, fragile, yellow-cream, covered with whitish fibrils that disappear as it matures. Fleeting veil, very difficult to observe. Very fragile, almost absent context, yellowish. No odor, taste not tested. Microscopic description: Spores 11.7-13.07-14.5 × 6.3-6.96-7.6 μm, Q=1.7-1.88-2, n=40, ellipsoid to amygdaloid, verrucose, generally with one or several guttules, non-amyloid. Basidia tetrasporic, clavate, 31-38 × 8-12 µm. Cheilocystidia variable in shape, often with a long neck and capitate. Pleurocystidia not observed. Pileipellis of cutis type, formed by parallel arranged hyphae, 3-12 µm in diameter, without clamp connections.

Habitat and distribution: Muscicolous species, predominantly acidophilic, relatively common in the Cantabrian coast and also present in peatlands in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula. The material from La Rioja cited here represents the only sequenced collection in the Iberian Peninsula that confirms the presence of G. heterocystis in the Iberian Peninsula. It differs from the rest of the Iberian species of Galerina subg. Hemitubariopsis Kühner ex Gulden (characterized mainly by the absence of clamp connections and non-dextrinoid spores without suprahilar plage) by its larger spores. Sp: A(?), Bi, C, Hu, L, Lo, Na, O, Or, S, SS, Te, Vi. Port: DL

References of the species in the territory
  • Arrillaga P., Lekuona J.M. & Olariaga I. 2015. Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Departamento de Micología: 50 años de historia (1965-2015). Vol. 1: 78. (Esp.: Hu, Na, SS). []
  • Conca A., García F., Martínez F. de P. & Mahiques R. 2003. Basidiomicets del carrascar de la Font Roja (II). Bol. Soc. Micol. Valenciana 8: 187. (Esp.: A) [sub. cf. clavata][pdf]
  • Paz Conde A. & Lavoise C. 2020. Myco-Liébana. Multicongreso – 2017: 290. (Esp: S) [pdf]
  • Costa Lago (2018) Galerina clavata in Catalógo Micolóxico de Galicia. FGM. (Esp.: C) [pdf]
  • Dennis R.W.G. & Reid D.A. 1956. October Fungi in Portugal. Revista Biol. (Lisboa) 1(1): 23. (Port: BL) [pdf]
  • Esteve-Raventós F. & Villarreal M. 2003. Notas corológicas sobre algunos Agaricales recogidos en el Parque Natural de Sanabria (Zamora), Valle del Bibei (Zamora, Orense) y Parque Natural de Montesinho (Tras os Montes, Portugal). Bol. Soc. Micol. Madrid 27: 171 (Esp: Or) [pdf]
  • Fernández-Sasia R. 2009. Contribución al estudio del género Galerina. Bol. Soc. Micol. Extremeña 9: 18. (Esp: Bi) [sub G. heterocystis][pdf]
  • García Bona L.M. 1980. Navarra: setas y hongos. Caja de Ahorros de Navarra. Pamplona: 151. (Esp.: Na) [sub G. heterocystis][pdf]
  • González V., Esteve-Raventós F., Arenal F. & Villarreal M. 1997. Contribución al estudio taxonómico de los macromicetos de zonas higroturbosas alpinas y subalpinas del Pirineo Central. Lucas Mallada 9:81. (Esp: Hu) [pdf]
  • Llimona X., Blanco M.N., Dueñas M., Gorris M., Gràcia E., Hoyo P., Llistosella J., Martí J., Martín M.P., Muntañola-Cvetkovic M., Quadrada R., Rocabruna A., Salcedo I. Sierra D., Tabarés M. & Vila J. 2000. Els fongs de Catalunya Occidental segons les prospeccions recents. II. Acta Bot. Barc. 46: 13. (Esp: L) [pdf]
  • Palazón A. 2016. Galerina clavata. Bolets de Catalunya 35: 1716 (Esp.: Hu).
  • Pérez Butrón J.L., Fernández Vicente J. & Alonso J.L. 2004. Setas de los eucaliptales de la Cornisa Cantábrica (VI) Catálogo micológico de los eucaliptales (V). Yesca 16: 31. (Esp.: Bi) [sub G. heterocystis][pdf]
  • Quadrada R., Llistosella J. & Vila J. 1997. Basidiomicets de les torberes dels Pirineus Catalans. Revista Catalana Micol. 20: 214. (Esp: L) [pdf]
  • Rubio E. 2008. Galerina clavata (Velen.) Kühner in Asturnatura [pdf]
  • Rubio E. 2018. Galerina clavata (Velen.) Kühner in Cemas [pdf]
  • Rubio E., Suárez A., Miranda M.A. & Linde J. 2006. Catálogo provisional de los macromicetos (setas) de Asturias. 1ª parte: 88. (Esp: O) [pdf]
  • Rubio R., Miranda M.A., Linde J. & Sánchez J.A. 2010. Biodiversidad Fúngica del Parque Natural de Somiedo. Ayuntamiento de Somiedo: 78. (Esp: O) [pdf]
  • Rubio Domínguez E., González García M. & Díaz García J. 2018. Catálogo revisado de los macromicetos del Jardín Botánico Atlántico de Gijón 2ª Parte. Documentos (Gijón) 15: 58. (Esp: O) [pdf]
  • Suárez E. & Suárez D. 2005. Adiciones al catálogo corológico de los macromicetes de la provincia de Teruel. II. Teruel 90(1): 221. (Esp: Te). [pdf]
  • Zapico C. 2007. Galerina clavata (Velen.) Kühner in Asturnatura (Esp: O) [pdf]

Specimens in scientific collections

* Sequenced material

LB: Private herbarium of Luis Ballester; PR: Costa Lago herbarium, APP: Private herbarium of Antonio Palazón Pemán; RFS: Private herbarium of Roberto Fernández Sasia.

Reference specimen marked in bold

Bi: RFS-021012-02, RFS-08-0219-01, RFS-08-0111-01, RFS-0812701, SEST-0401 2906
C: PR6081216143
Hu: APP-20160109
L: BCC GA940916-2, BCC GA930818-1
Lo: LB22111005*
Na: ARAN-Fungi 5266206, ARAN-Fungi 5037165, ARAN-Fungi 11396
O: ERD 489
Or: AH 29803
S: SMB 2018120707
SS: ARAN-Fungi 3023118, ARAN Fungi A1690 (numerous additional collections in ARAN-Fungi)
Te: H.H.T.S.G. 1047
Vi: VIT-Mycotheca 7353

BL: K(?)

Sequences in public databases and obtained from material in the territory

LB22111005: OR198914 (ITS)


Fig. 1. Most likely tree from Maximum Likelihood analysis conducted in IQ-Tree of the ITS region of Galerina subg. Hemitubariopsis Kühner ex Gulden. Above the nodes, ultrarapid bootstrap values are shown, along with Bayesian analysis posterior probability values (5M generations, burnin 0.25). Nodes supported in one of the two analyses are boldened. GenBank code, original identification, specimen number, and ISO country code are provided for each sequence.

Fig. 2. Map of the current distribution of G. heterocystis in the Iberian Peninsula. Source: SIM-SEL database


Fig. 3. Basidiomes in situ of Galerina heterocystis (Lo: Daroca de Rioja, among mosses under Equisetum, 10-XI-2022, leg. L. Ballester, R. Martínez-Gil, R. Márquez & I. Olariaga, LB22111005). Species apparently not cited until now in La Rioja. Photo by L. Ballester.

Fig. 4. Basidiomes in situ of Galerina heterocystis (ARAN-Fungi 19505). Photo by I. Olariaga.


Fig. 5. Spores of Galerina heterocystis (LB22111005). Photo by L. Ballester. Scale bar = 10 µm

Fig. 6. Spores of Galerina heterocystis (ARAN-Fungi 19505) in KOH. Photo by I. Olariaga. Scale bar = 10 µm.

Fig. 7. Cheilocystidia of Galerina heterocystis (ARAN-Fungi 19505) in KOH and SDS-Congo Red. Photo by I. Olariaga. Scale bar = 10 µm.

How to cite this sheet:

Ballester L., Marques G. & Olariaga I. 2023. Galerina heterocystis (G.H. Atk.) A.H. Sm. & Singer. Fichas SIM 40 (Updated on 29-VII-2023). DOI:
Available at: